Sul Post Razionalismo

A margine di un confronto fra Cutolo e Mancini

Giampiero Arciero

In this article is discussed the meaning of the word post-rationalism in Guidano’s post-rationalist theory and in the actual perspective of the Post-Rationalist Institute (IPRA).

In questo articolo vengono discusse le differenze del significato del termine post-razionalismo nella teoria post-razionalista di Guidano e nell’attuale prospettiva dell’Istituto Post-Razionalista (IPRA). Già da qualche numero su “Quaderni” è in corso uno scambio fra Cutolo e Mancini che ha come sfondo la teoria post-razionalista di Vittorio Guidano. Poichè io sono il responsabile dell’Istituto Post-Razionalista fondato con Vittorio Guidano –quando era ancora in vita- mi permetto di intervenire in questa discussione guidato soprattutto dalla necessità di chiarire a chi legge, due temi di fondo che in questo scambio risultano particolarmente confusi. Non entrerò pertanto negli argomenti specifici su cui Cutolo e Mancini dibattono -avendoli peraltro trattati altrove (Arciero 2006, Arciero & Bondolfi 2009)– proprio perchè mi interessa gettare luce sui presupposti che guidano le argomentazioni dei nostri due interlocutori.

In primo luogo dunque cosa significa “Post” e poi cosa indica “Razionalismo” nella dicitura “Post-Razionalismo”.

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Vittorio Guidano a dieci anni dalla scomparsa: riflessioni sul passato e sul futuro del post-razionalismo

Giampiero Arciero

Intervista di Davide Liccione

LICCIONE: se sei d’accordo potremmo partire dall’epistemologia. Vittorio asseriva di essere passato dalla ricerca di base in campo biologico allo studio della psicologia in seguito alle trasformazioni sociali del ’68. Il cambiamento d’interesse scientifico si è tradotto in una modificazione dell’oggetto di studio: dalla cellula al “Self”, rifiutando come adeguati metodi scientifici sia l’approccio materialista-riduttivista della scienza biologica sia la psicoanalisi. Nell’ambito della nuova disciplina, la psicologia, compie un percorso che si dispiega dal comportamentismo skinneriano all’interesse per la fenomenologia ermeneutica, attraversando il filone cognitivista e la biologia della conoscenza della scuola di Santiago. Nel corso di questa evoluzione è sempre stato molto attento alla ricerca di base e ha costruito un modello teorico i cui fondamenti derivano da differenti discipline: filosofia della scienza, epistemologia evolutiva, fisica teorica, biologia della conoscenza, antropologia, etologia umana, evoluzionismo. Vittorio amava raccontare l’evoluzione del suo pensiero teorico come conseguenza del susseguirsi di vere e proprie rivoluzioni epistemologiche: dall’empirismo al razionalismo, fino al post-razionalismo.

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After constructivism

Giampiero Arciero

Interviewed by Aníbal Henriques

http://www.sppc.org.pt/multimedia/after_constructivism

SPPC – Lisbon, March 2011

Aníbal Henriques: Giampiero thank you so much for your willingness to have this conversation. Your training as a psychiatrist started with a focus on severe disturbances, like psychosis and schizophrenia, correct?

Giampiero Arciero: Right.

A.H.: And how did you come to embrace the Cognitive Post-rationalist Therapy theories and practice in the nineties?

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Stress-Related Methylation of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158 Allele Predicts Human Prefrontal Cognition and Activity

The Journal of Neuroscience, May 4, 2011 • 31(18):6692– 6698

Gianluca Ursini,1,2 Valentina Bollati,3,4 Leonardo Fazio,1 Annamaria Porcelli,1 Luisa Iacovelli,5 Assia Catalani,Lorenzo Sinibaldi,2Barbara Gelao,1 Raffaella Romano,1 Antonio Rampino,1 Paolo Taurisano,1 Marina Mancini,Annabella Di Giorgio,1,6 Teresa Popolizio,6 Andrea Baccarelli,3,4,7 Antonio De Blasi,8 Giuseppe Blasi1 and Alessandro Bertolino1,6

1Psychiatric Neuroscience Group, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University “Aldo Moro”, 71024 Bari, Italy,

2Mendel Laboratory, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy,
3Center for Molecular and Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy,
4Istituto Di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Maggiore Hospital, Mangiagalli and Regina Elena Foundation, 20122 Milan, Italy,
5Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy,
6Department of Neuroradiology, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy,
7Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115-
6018,
8Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Rome “Sapienza”, 00185 Rome, Italy

 Abstract

DNAmethylation at CpG dinucleotides is associated with gene silencing, stress, and memory. The catechol-O -methyltransferase (COMT) Val158 allele in rs4680 is associated with differential enzyme activity, stress responsivity, and prefrontal activity during working memory (WM), and it creates a CpG dinucleotide. We report that methylation of the Val158 allele measured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of Val/Val humans is associated negatively with lifetime stress and positively with WM performance; it interacts with stress to modulate prefrontal activity during WM, such that greater stress and lower methylation are related to reduced cortical efficiency; and it is inversely related to mRNA expression and protein levels, potentially explaining the in vivo effects. Finally, methylation of COMT in prefrontal cortex and that in PBMCs of rats are correlated. The relationship of methylation of the COMT Val158 allele with stress, gene expression,WM performance, and related brain activity suggests that stress-related methylation is associated with silencing of the gene, which partially compensates the physiological role of the high-activity Val allele in prefrontal cognition and activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate how stress-related DNA methylation of specific functional alleles impacts directly on human brain physiology beyond sequence variation.


Affective Response to a Loved One’s Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

PLoS ONE 5(12): e15268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015268

Viridiana Mazzola1*, Valeria Latorre1,2, Annamaria Petito3, Nicoletta Gentili1,4, Leonardo Fazio5, Teresa Popolizio6, Giuseppe Blasi5, Giampiero Arciero1, Guido Bondolfi7

1 Istituto di Psicologia Post-Razionalista IPRA, Rome, Italy, 2 Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy, 3 Institute of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy, 4 National Child and Deaf Family Service, South West London and St George’s NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom, 5 Psychiatric Neuroscience Group, Section on Mental Disorders, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy, 6 Department of Neuroradiology, IRCCSS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy, 7 Departement de Psychiatrie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Geneve, Switzerland

Abstract 

Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one’s pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion.

Citation: Mazzola V, Latorre V, Petito A, Gentili N, Fazio L, et al. (2010) Affective Response to a Loved One’s Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15268. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015268

Editor: Ben J. Harrison, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Received: August 3, 2010; Accepted: November 3, 2010; Published: December 16, 2010

Copyright: © 2010 Mazzola et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

* E-mail: neurolab@ipra.it